Helge Ø. Pharo

Helge Ø. Pharo is Professor Emeritus at the Institute of Archaeology, Conservation and History at the University of Oslo and contributor to norgeshistorie.no.

Contributions to nordics.info

Picture of a globe with Norway highlighted and two arrows going east and west

2020.02.06 | The Quick Read, Helge Ø. Pharo, The Nordics in the World, Globalisation

Norway, the West and the Soviet Union, 1944-48

The term ’bridge-building’ is often used to describe Norwegian foreign policy from the tail end of the Second World War until Norway's turn to the West in early 1948. Even though the term is ambiguous at best, it now occupies an established place in Norwegian historiography, and reflects the perceived position of Norway between East and West in…

Norwegian aid started with the establishment of the India Foundation in 1952 with the sole focus on an Indo-Norwegian Fisheries Project in the Indian state of Kerala. Photo:colourbox.dk.

2020.01.06 | Article, Helge Ø. Pharo, The Nordics in the World, Globalisation

The India Foundation: The beginning of Norwegian aid

The Foundation for Assistance for Underdeveloped Areas, or India Foundation as it was known, marked the beginning of Norwegian international development aid in 1952. Against the backdrop of the Marshall Plan and the burgeoning Cold War, there were persuasive political reasons for the initiative, over and above its purported purpose to assist India.

Politician Einar Gerhardsen was leader of the Labour Party and Prime Minister from 1945-1951, and 1955-1965. Photo: Wikimedia. CC BY-SA 4.0.

2019.11.22 | Article, Helge Ø. Pharo, Cooperation, Region-building

Nordic Cooperation 1947 – 1960: a Norwegian perspective

Immediately before and after the Nordic Council was founded in 1952, there was much debate over what form cooperation should take amongst the Scandinavian/Nordic countries, primarily with respect to the economy and defence. Norway’s attempts to support a customs union/common market in 1947, 1950 and 1954 belied its repeated blocking of initiatives…